Old English sceal , Northumbrian scule "I owe/he owes, will have to, ought to, must" (infinitive sculan , past tense sceolde ), a common Germanic preterite-present verb (along with can , may , will ), from Proto-Germanic *skal- (cf. Old Saxon sculan , Old Frisian skil , Old Norse and Swedish skola , Middle Dutch sullen , Old High German solan , German sollen , Gothic skulan "to owe, be under obligation;" related via past tense form to Old English scyld "guilt," German Schuld "guilt, debt;" also Old Norse Skuld , name of one of the Norns), from PIE root *skel- (2) "to be under an obligation."
Ground sense of the Germanic word probably is "I owe," hence "I ought." The sense shifted in Middle English from a notion of "obligation" to include "futurity." Its past tense form has become should (.). Cognates outside Germanic are Lithuanian skeleti "to be guilty," skilti "to get into debt;" Old Prussian skallisnan "duty," skellants "guilty."
This applies not only to what we think, but also to what we see and how we
see it. So, for instance, "The Bayeux Tapestry depicts William
the Conqueror as having a fair and justified claim to the English throne .
." or "The Magna Carta argues for the strong sense of feudalistic
duty the English barons felt incumbent upon them . ." In sum, present-tense
verbs are appropriate in historical argumentation, so long as the writer is
discussing the current nature of research and modern ways of approaching historical
data. In other words, "Homer composed poetry long ago, but we
today interpret it along certain lines."
Clear explanations about how to use the present simple tense (or simple present) in English
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